What is a Neanderthal Human?

Who were the Neanderthals?

What is a Neanderthal Human?

In the world of human evolution, the term “Neanderthal” has become a common term, but not everyone knows exactly what it means. Neanderthals were a species of humans who lived in Europe and Asia from around 400,000 years ago to 40,000 years ago. They were named after the Neander Valley in Germany, where the first Neanderthal fossils were discovered in 1856.

Discover the history and characteristics of the Neanderthal human species. Learn about their physical attributes, way of life, and how they fit into the human evolutionary tree.
Discover the history and characteristics of the Neanderthal human species. Learn about their physical attributes, way of life, and how they fit into the human evolutionary tree.

Neanderthals are known for their robust build and large skulls, but they were not just primitive cavemen. In fact, they had many advanced traits that set them apart from other early humans. In this article, we will delve into the fascinating world of Neanderthal humans and explore their unique characteristics.

Physical Characteristics of Neanderthal Humans

Neanderthal Humans They had a distinctive appearance and physical characteristics that distinguish them from modern humans.

Cranial Features

One of the most distinctive physical features of Neanderthal humans is their skull. They had a large, elongated braincase, a projecting face, and a pronounced brow ridge. Their skulls were also wider than modern human skulls, giving them a more robust appearance. Their skulls also had a larger nasal cavity and a midfacial prognathism, which means that their faces projected forward more than modern humans. This feature allowed for a larger nasal cavity, which would have been beneficial for breathing in cold, dry environments.

Postcranial Features

Neanderthal humans also had distinctive postcranial features, meaning the bones below the skull. They had a stockier build and shorter limbs than modern humans, which would have made them better adapted to living in cold, harsh environments. Their limbs were also heavily muscled, which would have allowed them to exert greater strength when hunting or carrying heavy objects. In addition, their rib cages were wider and more barrel-shaped than modern human rib cages, which would have provided greater lung capacity for breathing in cold environments.

Genetic Features

In addition to their physical features, recent studies have also found genetic differences between Neanderthal humans and modern humans. It is estimated that modern humans and Neanderthal humans shared a common ancestor around 600,000 years ago, but diverged into separate species around 400,000 years ago. Studies have found that modern humans have a small amount of Neanderthal DNA in their genomes, suggesting that interbreeding between the two species occurred. This interbreeding likely occurred when modern humans migrated out of Africa and encountered Neanderthal populations in Europe and Asia.

Lifestyle and Behavior

Neanderthals were not just physically adapted to their environment; they also had unique lifestyles and behaviors. They were hunter-gatherers, and their diet consisted of a variety of plants and animals. They hunted large game, such as mammoths and bison, as well as smaller animals like rabbits and birds. They also ate a variety of plants, including tubers and berries. Neanderthals were also skilled toolmakers. They made stone tools, wooden spears, and bone implements for hunting and other activities. They also used fire, which they could create by striking flint against iron pyrite, to keep warm and cook food.


Neanderthals were hunter-gatherers and subsisted on a varied diet that included meat, fish, nuts, and berries. They were skilled hunters and used a variety of tools, such as spears and stone knives, to catch their prey. In addition to hunting, they also scavenged and gathered wild plants for food. Evidence from their teeth and bones suggests that Neanderthals consumed a high protein diet, which likely helped them build and maintain their muscular physiques. They also likely consumed large amounts of fat, which would have provided them with the necessary energy to survive in harsh environments.

Social Structure

Neanderthals lived in small groups of around 10–30 individuals and likely had complex social structures. They cared for their sick and elderly, buried their dead, and engaged in cultural practices, such as creating art and music. Evidence from archaeological sites suggests that Neanderthals had distinct cultural practices, such as burying their dead with flowers, creating intricate tools and jewelry, and using fire to cook their food and keep warm. These practices suggest that Neanderthals had a rich cultural life and were more than just simple hunter-gatherers.

Tools and Technology

Neanderthals were skilled tool makers and used a variety of tools to survive in their environments. They created stone knives, spears, and scrapers for hunting and processing their food, as well as bone tools for various tasks, such as sewing and scraping hides. In addition to tools, Neanderthals also used fire to cook their food and keep warm in cold environments. Evidence from archaeological sites suggests that they were skilled fire-makers and likely had a deep understanding of fire and its uses.

Interbreeding with Modern Humans

Physical Characteristics

Neanderthals were well adapted to living in cold, harsh environments. They had a stocky build and short limbs, which helped them conserve heat. They also had a larger braincase than modern humans, but their skulls were flatter with a lower forehead. Their brow ridges were also more prominent, and their noses were wider to help warm and humidify the air they breathed in.

Genetic Legacy

It was long believed that Neanderthals were a separate species from modern humans and that they went extinct without contributing to our gene pool. However, genetic studies have shown that modern humans of non-African descent have between 1–4% Neanderthal DNA in their genomes. This suggests that early humans interbred with Neanderthals when they migrated out of Africa and into Eurasia. Interbreeding with modern humans is not unique to Neanderthals. Scientists have also discovered evidence of interbreeding between modern humans and other archaic human species, such as the Denisovans, who lived in Asia around the same time as the Neanderthals.

The Legacy of Neanderthal DNA

The Neanderthal DNA that survives in modern humans is primarily found in non-coding regions of the genome, meaning it doesn’t code for proteins. However, researchers have found that some of the Neanderthal DNA that was incorporated into our genome may have provided us with certain advantages, such as enhanced immune function and improved skin and hair texture. On the other hand, some Neanderthal DNA has been linked to increased risk for certain diseases, such as lupus and Crohn’s disease. This highlights the complex legacy of our interbreeding with other human species and the role it has played in shaping our genetic makeup.


Neanderthal humans were a fascinating species of human that lived for hundreds of thousands of years in Europe and Asia. They had many unique physical and behavioral characteristics that set them apart from other early humans. While they are now extinct, their legacy lives on in the DNA of modern humans. What is Smartphone Vision Syndrome?

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